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100 Years of Lausanne Treaty

This year in June, it was the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne.

This treaty, which is among the most important legal texts in modern history, is considered the foundational agreement of the Republic of Turkey.

After the Ankara government achieved victory in the Great Offensive at the end of the War of Independence, the Mudanya Armistice Agreement was signed on October 11, 1922. The agreement was signed by the Turkish Grand National Assembly (GNAT) government in Ankara, England, France and Italy.

Following this agreement, the Ankara government was invited to the peace conference to be held in October 1922.

 In the invitation letter, the purpose of the conference to be held in Lausanne was defined as the conclusion of "an agreement that will end the war in the East".


What is the Lausanne Treaty?

The Treaty of Lausanne, also known as the Treaty of Lausanne Peace, was signed by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey's delegates and those from the UK, France, USSR, Japan, Bulgaria, Italy, Romania, Yugoslavia, Greece, Belgium, and Portugal.

The Treaty of Lausanne, which confirmed the Republic of Turkey's independence and served as the last peace treaty of World War I, was signed on July 24, 1923.

Under the direction of Mesmet Pasha, the Minister of Health Riza Nur and the Former Minister of Economy Hasan Bey signed the Lausanne Peace Treaty on behalf of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.

Ismet Pasha signed the Treaty of Lausanne on behalf of Turkey on July 24, 1923.


Articles of the Lausanne Treaty

The 143 articles that make up the Treaty of Lausanne, which is divided into 4 parts, are as follows:

  • Border between Turkey and Syria: The Ankara Treaty, which was signed in 1921 with France, which drew the borders, has been ratified. (When Hatay joined the Republic of Turkey in 1939, it assumed its present form.)

  • Border between Turkey and Iraq: The dispute over Kirkuk and Mosul prevented its resolution. 

  • The Ankara Treaty, which was concluded in 1926, gave Iraq, which was governed by the British, control of Mosul.

  • Turkey-USSR Border: The 1921 Moscow and Kars Treaties' delineated borders were approved.

  • Iran-Turkey Border: The border established by the 1639 Kasr-irin Treaty remained in place.

  • Greece-Turkey Border: The Meriç River is acknowledged as being the border between the two nations. As a form of war reparation, Karaağaç, was taken from Greece.

  • Border between Turkey and Bulgaria: It was upheld by the 1913 Treaty of Istanbul and the Treaty of Neuilly, which Bulgaria signed following World War I.

  • Islands: Cyprus was given to England, the Dodecanese Islands, Meis, and Rhodes to Italy, the Bozcada, Gökçeada, and Tavşan Islands to Turkey, and the remaining islands were given to Greece.

  • Every concession has been eliminated.

  • Under the protection of the League of Nations, an international committee with Turkey as its chairman is tasked with managing the Straits. In 1936, Turkey signed the Montreux Straits Convention, giving it complete control over the straits.

  • All minorities are welcomed as full citizens of Turkey.

  • With the exception of the Turks in Komotini and Thessaloniki and the Greeks in Istanbul, Bozcada, and Gökçeada, Greeks and Turks will be switched.

  • The World War One winners will not receive any remuneration.

  • The Ottoman Empire's foreign debts will be paid off in proportion to the wealth and size of the governments that have departed the empire.

  • The 1881-instituted Public Duyun-i Umumiye will be eliminated.

  • The ideals of National Education will continue to be followed by foreign schools in Turkey.

  • Turkey's Fener Greek Patriarchate is still there.


Results of the Lausanne Treaty

The following are the outcomes of the Treaty of Lausanne, which was signed on July 24, 1923:

  • The decisions made by the National Pact were largely implemented, and true full independence was attained.

  • A political victory served as the capstone to the military triumphs achieved during the War of Independence.

  • The terms of the Treaty of Sevres were eliminated.

  • The Allied Powers recognised the newly formed Turkish state.


The significance of the Lausanne Treaty 

The Treaty of Lausanne is a legal document that demonstrates global support for the creation of an independent Turkish state both inside and outside Turkey. From this perspective, the Lausanne Peace Treaty might be regarded as the Republic of Turkey's title deed.

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