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Literacy Rate of Women In India

Around 6 crore children are out of faculty or dropouts in India. That is the highest number of out of school children of any country in the world, making India a youth-driven country full of unskilled and underpaid labour. Out of those nearly 40% of the women within the age bracket, 15-18 aren't attending any educational institutions. Almost 30% of women from the poorest families haven't set foot inside a category -room as per the info provided by different government and international agencies (UNESCO 2013). 


Gender-based discrimination against girl child are common phenomenon worldwide and India isn't any better. It is visible altogether the sections of the society in various forms. The education of the girl child in India is a crucial social indicator to live the status of gender equality. According to the 2011 census, feminine literacy stands at 65% to 83% of the male literacy rate. Out of 30.76 crore population between the age -group of 7-18 years, 3.60 crore population (11.7%) are illiterate. Women (1.9crore) of this age group shares 53% of the total illiterate population. In the adolescent population (10-19 years), 9.9% (2.52 crore) of adolescents are illiterate out of which 56% (1.42 crore) are girls. The 78.23-lakh adolescent girls within the age -group 15-19 years are found to be illiterate and vulnerable whereas 63.57 lakh adolescent girls within the age -group 10- 14 years are illiterate out of total adolescent girls.


 The National Survey on Estimation of out of faculty children, 2014 reveals that out of an estimated 20.41 crore children within the age-group 6-13 years, 60.41 lakh children are out of faculty. At a national level, a better proportion of women (3.23%) are out of faculty than boys (2.77%). Also, more rural children (3.13%) are out of faculty than the urban areas (2.54%). About 1.12 crore urban children sleep in slums out of which 2.14% are out of faculty. At the national level, 4.34% of children drop out at the first level whereas it's 17.86% at the secondary level. During 2014-15 the Gross Enrolment Ratio at the primary level for women and boys are 101.4 and 98.9 respectively; at the bourgeoisie level the figures stand at 95.3 and 87.7; at the higher secondary level, the status is at 65.8 and 63.8 respectively. 


According to UDISE data, the 8.95-lakh girls didn't continue education in school IX or dropped out. According to NFHS 4 data, only 35% of women completed 10 or more years of schooling in India out of which only 27% of rural women completed 10 or more years of schooling. It is a matter of concern when 9 out of each 10 girls ever enrolled in class don't complete schooling and just one out of each 100 girls enrolled in school I complete Class XII in rural areas. If we glance at the statistics associated with child marriage in India as per the 2011 census, 10.26 crore girls got married before the age of 17. Out of which 6.05 crore girls were illiterate and a couple of .78crore were literate but not even completed primary education. Out of 10.26 crore girls,1.90 crore girls got married before the age of 13 years whereas 8.36 crore girls got married between the age -group of 14-17 years. 7.66 crore cases of kid marriage happened in rural India. The situation of the dropout of women from the agricultural and marginalized sections of society continues to be severe. Once the girl crosses the first level and sets bent to complete her middle and secondary schooling many socio-economic factors act as barriers making access to education difficult for her. Poverty and reluctance of oldsters to teach women over boys are major deterrents to girls' education. India's Right to Education Act 2009 guarantees every child between 6 and 14 the proper to free and compulsory schooling. However, the act isn't widely implemented and it excludes lyceum children between 15 and 18 years aged, leaving many children, and girls especially, without the education they have to create a far better future for his or her families, communities and country. 


Data from the Annual Status on Education Report (ASER) 2017 shows that lyceum children's foundational reading and math abilities are poor and average achievement many Class V students have declined altogether subjects between 2011 and 2014. The Union Government's emphasis on education is restricted which is reflected in the share of expenditure on education within the budget allocation. The Government is merely spending 2.7% of GDP on education. This represents a drop from 2012-13 when education expenditure was 3.1% of GDP and remains a big distance from the 2015 Incheon Declaration and Kothari Commission recommendations of allocating at least 6% of GDP to education.


 The benefits of teaching a girl child are manifold and may contribute to a healthy and progressive society. Education, particularly formal education, is that the best thanks to developing the talents needed for work and life. Those with access to quality upper education are significantly less likely than workers with lower secondary to be in vulnerable employment or to figure informally without a contract or social benefits. Education increases women's wages later in life by 15- 25%.1% increase in female education raises the typical level of GDP by 0.37%. Empowerment is a crucial tool to vary perceptions and belief systems from a human rights perspective. The provisions of the RTE Act are required to be implemented with the inclusion of upper education for the youngsters especially girls up to 18 years. It is also required to enhance the education and learning outcomes of youngsters and particularly girls by investing within the trained teachers within the schools. At the bottom level, the government should make the faculties and communities safe and conducive to women education.


 


Image - Madura Insights


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Tags: women GDP women empowerment UNITED NATIONS girls education education in India Beti bachao beti padhao financial security rural development Literacy rate


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