Here we are going to learn about Jews history of about 2000 years . If we look at the Israelis Palestinian conflict it’s about a peace of land claimed by people of two different groups. This conflict actually began a century back in 1900’s.
Here this is the modern day map of Israel.
However let’s go back in time and try to understand how Jews people ended up on a land which was previously dominant by Muslims. To understand this we have to go back in time to Mesopotamian civilization. Mesopotamian civilization is believe to have began somewhere around 5000BC, Modern day Iran , Turkey, Syria, were used to be the part of this civilization. The entire Mesopotamian civilization is divided into four different categories :-
1. Sumerian – ( 5000 – 2370BC )
2. Akkadian civilization - ( 2370 – 2230 )
3. Assyrian civilization - ( 1792 – 1595) also known as Old/ Babylonian empire
4. Babylonian culture
After that “ Hittite Dynasty “ took over ( 1600 – 1300 BC ) for a short time span. After that “ Assyrian Empire “ took over Mesopotamian ( 1300 – 600 BC ), After them II / New Babylonian empire ( 600 – 530 BC ) also known as by name of “ Chaldean dynasty ) was end of Mesopotamian Empire.
During this end of the Assyrian period some where B/w ( 1900 – 1800BC ) many small kingdoms started to emerge to east of Mediterranean Sea. These small kingdom were located in b/w Egyptian empire to South west & Assyrian empire to the north & north east.
During this time Egypt was ruled by Pharaohs under the “ Wahibre Psamtik 1 “ The Pharaoh of 26th dynasty of Egypt , was his last native dynasty of Egypt. Because after him Persian immediately conquered Egypt around 525 BC . During end of Assyrian period somewhere around ( 900 – 800 BC ) many small kingdoms started to emerge to east of Mediterranean sea in b/w south west kingdom of Assyrian empire & North, North eastern empire of Egypt and Israel was one these small kingdoms.
The Israel was divided in two parts , The Northern part consist of tribes named Israelis & sudden part consist of tribes named Judah & Benjamin. And thus became the kingdom of Judah, capital city of kingdom Israel was Samaria. Both the northern & sudden part of Israel keep on fighting to each others and their neighbors. The kingdom of Israel was completely destroyed by Assyrians in 722BC . Where Judah in south resisted in some extent but they were severely damaged. And the people of Judah narrowly escaped the dreadful slaughter of Assyrian empire.
There were various moments when Jews people were persecuted, massacred & forced to migrate, flee or in slavery.
Now the question is how Jerusalem came into existence ?
Jerusalem- The first time when Jerusalem was mentioned historically was in Bible ( THE Old Testament ) in era of Patriarchs. The Patriarchal age in old Bible is basically the era of three Biblical Patriarch
Abraham & Sarah had child his name was Isaac. Then Isaac & Rebecca had twin boys one of them was Jacob. Later Jacob had 13 children. Abraham came from Mesopotamia, Abraham has given major respect in three major religion
For Arabic people in Islam Abraham is known as Ibrahim or The Prophet and the messenger of The God. Similarly for Jews Abraham is the founder of Judaism. HE was the first Jew. & for Christians he is the ultimate Father of Christian faith.
That’s why Judaism , Christianity & Islam is also known as Abraham religions as Abraham is in centre of all and the founder of Monotheism.
As we said first mentioned of Israel came in to Bible of old Testament, Now another question is how old is the original Hebrew Bible , As this is known as oldest testament of Bible.
It is believed to have written in different times between 12165BC. The Hebrew Bible has 39 books to call of mosses by God. So from (1010BC – 1917 BC ) David was the king of Israel & Judah, During the king David ‘s rule Mesopotamia was under the Assyrian empire. Before that it was under the Hittite empire ( 1600 – 1300 BC ).
David King was the first who declared Jerusalem as the capital of The Kingdom of Israel. Jerusalem is also known as “ Zion “ which means in Hebrew “Land of Israel” .
After the king David his son Solomon built the first temple in Jerusalem. The temple was first destroyed by Babylonians In 587BC. But before that Israel as an city and kingdom was destroyed by Assyrians empire in 722 BC . We can understand this in this way.
The kingdom of Israel , Judah, Edom, Ammon on Aram damascus who existed at time of Egyptian empire in south west and to Assyrian empire on the north & north-east.
By the mid of 700BC both the big empire started conquering these small kingdoms and by 722BC kingdom of Israel was conquered and destroyed by Assyrian empire. People of northern Israel flee to Judah where Jerusalem was existed, and then later in 600 BC everything was conquered and destroyed by Assyrian empire until the rise of The Babylonians in 600 BC , which means all the territory on which Israel existed was under the control of Assyrians for almost a decade until it went in hands of Egyptians after the fall of Assyrian empire.
And then New Babylonians & Egyptians started fighting to each others over territorial controls. Babylonian immediately gain control over Jerusalem. The Jews who didn’t flee from Jerusalem resisted the new rule of Babylonians that is when they destroyed city & temple of Jerusalem in 587BC. People of Jerusalem were forced to flee to the capital of Babylonian empire. After the fall of Babylonian empire, The Persian empire under the rule of Achaemenid empire. which is also known as the first empire to conquered the Babylonian Empire in 539 BC.
The Persian Empire - These are ancient Iranian Empire, Cyrus The Great was the first ruler of Persian Empire which was founded in the ( 559 – 529 BC ) by Cyrus The Great. And became the greatest stretching empire form Europe’s Balkans to Indus valley in the east . After him King Darius ( 522 – 486 BC ) the fourth king of Achaemenid empire then empire In four directions From Macedonia , Black Sea to African part Libya , Egypt Etc. first Persian King Cyrus The Great took control over Babylonians.
He allowed Judean to move back to Jerusalem in early 5th century. Thus Judean people rebuild the city Jerusalem & then established culture by building the new temple of Solomon and writing the Torah . Torah is written in Hebrew language is a surtax and forms part of ancient Hebrew. Then in 336 BC Alexander The Great became the king of Macedonia which is part of modern day Greece. Pella was the ancient city which is the birth place of Alexander The Great.
Alexander conquered all the regions who were under the rule of Persian empire and took control of all of the regions from straight of Gibraltar in west to the Indus river in Indian subcontinent to the east. Then he died in 323BC that mean Alexander The Great has to travel from east coast of Mediterranean sea by conquering all the regions in the way to reach the Egypt.
We can conclude that b/w ( 336 BC - 332 BC ) Alexander The Great must have visited the Jerusalem, and he was aware that the loyalty of Jews were with Persians King Darius III. After death of Alexander Greek empire was divided into four parts
Jerusalem came under Seleucus Dynasty. The Greeks were following Hellenic culture. It then started friction b/w Jews & Greeks. Then there were some extrememist in Jews who developed Anti Hellenic culture against the Greeks and gain control over Jerusalem & kingdom of Judah by 63 BC. During this revolt many Jews died. The hasmonean Dynasty kept Judah independent and kept political boundaries for almost hundred years but by 63BC Kingdom of Judah was conquered by Roman general named Pompey. Then Julius Caesar conquered Alexandria in 47BC, and defeated Pompey In 45BC. Both were Roman general but their opinions were different. Under Julius Jude’s accepted officially as religion. But we as we all knows Jude follows Monotheism & Roman follows Polyostotic views. Which cause clashes b/w Jews & Romans And Romans also replaced Jews Hashmoneam Dynasty with Herod The Great as king, which means Romans didn’t rule Jerusalem directly but with a local client king b/w 65BC to 135AD. There were thousands of revolts by Jews of eastern Mediterranean sea against Romans but Romans were successful to suppress them all. They even destroyed cities & temples of Jerusalem.
Reason for revolt against Romans was
1. Corruption & disloyalty among Romans .
2. Surge in nationalism in Jews with a view of freeing their Holly homeland from foreign powers.
As a result by 237AD many Jews migrated to Galilee located in Middle of Israel, Sudan, Lebanon. Many Jews were sold in slavery while some flee to other parts of Roman empire some in other parts of Africa, very few were left in Judah . Then in 285AD Roman empire was divided in two parts eastern & western Roman empire.
By 330AD western Roman empire’s capital was Rome & Eastern Roman empire’s capital was Constantinople. In ancient Roman empire there were many Gods that’s why Roman empire was Polyostotic. When in 164 AD Judah remained independent for 100 years under the rule of Hasmonean dynasty by fighting with Greeks. At that time Christianity also developed in Judah out of Jews culture in Mid first century of AD & then as we knows the Romans conquered Jerusalem that means Christianity spread through Roman empire. So in beginning of first century AD New Testament of Christian Bible were written by Roman citizen “Paul the Apostie” or “Saint Paul” .
He started spreading teaching of Jesus in 1 century through the Roman empire, and Jews have also received the status of legal religion under the Julius Caesar. However Christianity developed out of Jews Culture didn’t get any sot of legal protection because Christians didn’t expect any rule of Romans. Thus thousands of Christians were killed by Romans in first two century AD. “ It’s believed that Pontius Pilate who was the Roman governor of Judah gave the order to crucify Jesus. “ And then in 285AD when Roman empire was divided into two parts emperor Constantine who was the ruler of eastern Roman empire in 313AD, he issued “ The Addict of Milan “ which granted legal status to Christianity in Roman empire. Then in end of Roman empire that was around of 390AD Christianity became the dominant religion in Roman empire & Jerusalem became the place of pilgrims for Christians. Reason why Christianity flourish in Roman empire was corruption & lack of loyalty among them , and Christianity offers them sense of community & comfort. Western Roman empire came to an end in 476AD. When Germanic barbarians “ Odoacer” from “Visigoth “ tribe defeated emperor of eastern Europe Augustus, which was the end of entire Roman empire.
After this Europe fell into Barbarian ages which is known as dark age of Europe for next 500 years went from civilized community to Barbaric rule. On the other hand Eastern Roman empire was trying to get control over those lands who were previously under the western Roman empire and now in hands of Germanic Barbarians. Many Jews flee to Africa & Middle east after fall of Roman empire in 47AD for next 100-200 years Jews community in Mediterranean basin who were in both Eastern & Western Roman empire these Jews were persecuted on both side especially in Germanic Visigoth tribe & Byzantine empire in Eastern Europe.
Then in 620-635AD, Islam was born in Mecca , ( present day Saudi Arab ). It’s the time when Conquest began when they started conquering Jordon, Libya, Iran , Turkey etc. Arabs also gain control over Jerusalem. Jews supported Arabs in hope that Arabs will help them Visigoth tribe. And that’s what happened. Arabs tolerated Jews because of their Monotheistic believes otherwise they were force fully converting people of Polyostotic views. Around “ 685 – 691 AD ” , Dome of Rock was built.
By Arabs in Jerusalem, and by this construction Jerusalem became the Holly Land for three religions .
By 8th century Germanic Barbaric rule came to end Europe . Arabs Conquered entire North Africa including present day Spain & Portugal. In this region 5% population were Jews11th AD which is known as the golden era for Jews they became the merchants b/w Christians of Europe & Muslims of Mediterranean Arabs.
In early 11AD when Celjick empire was found who were of central Asian Turkish Dynasty. Who began expansion and reach to Jerusalem in 1347AD. They started persecuting Christians in Jerusalem. So in response European Christians started fighting with Ottomans & also started massacring of Jews on mass level by thinking that Muslims supports Jews. Also thinking that it was the Jews who killed Jesus and Jews became the deicide in eyes of Europeans. In 1347AD Italian merchants boats from Caffa spread Black Death . Caffa was a place in Black Sea from where Italian merchants bring Black Death in Europe and this Black Death Wipe off half population of Europe at that time in five years. Then there was a rumor that Jews people poisoned their wells in order to kill Christians of Europe in mass. It was believed that this was the idea of Muslims Followed by Jews and this incident cause heavy persecution of Jews in !4th - 15th century. At that time Arabs were ruling the Portugal & Spain, Where Jews were working as merchants b/w European Christians & Arabs, Hence later Jews were forced to leave Europe or either to convert themselves in Christianity. Thus many Jews leave Europe & flee to Mediterranean sea where they were welcomed as there was Ottoman empire. Then in 1569AD Polish Lithuanian Union was established which was proved to be as a heaven for Jews. Which means Poland & Lithuania merged and had a influential role in Europe and in vital culture entity. This escape heaven became the home of 3 hundred thousand of Jews & this Polish -Lithuanian commonwealth was emerging as an great power too by 1760 AD. All the neighbor empire like Sweden, Russia , Berlin, Vienna attacked Lithuanian & Polish Commonwealth from all sides killing Jews more than 1 hundred thousand. Thus many Jews flee and found themselves in eastern side of Russia, where they were not welcomed and persecuted there too. IN 1850AD many Jews went it western Europe & to USA as there were improved living conditions there.
In 1897AD many Jews of eastern & Western Europe started an religious moment which is known as “Zionism” in Basel Switzerland . The whole point of this moment was to make a Jews state In Holly land Jerusalem . which at that time was under the rule of Ottoman empire named Palestine .
Thing about Palestine was they were Arabs who were developing their different identity in name of Palestine. On the other hand Jews were flee to different part to Mediterranean & in Europe as they were persecuted , Massacred, pushed into slavery, forced for conversion by many foreigner ruler. Which cause sense of their own homeland In Jerusalem.
And at the time of Jews Zionism moment Jerusalem was under the control of Ottoman empire who were not in favor of Jews This moment at any cost. But then WWI happened in 1914 played by Central & Allies power.
Central Powers- At that time
1. kingdom of Germany .
2. Austro-Hungarian empire.
3. Ottoman empire.
Allies power -
1. France. 4. Japan
2. Britain. 5. Italy
Here as we can see Jews were there in both Allies Powers & in Central Powers. Which means in Germany, Russia , UK , France, Italy. As these were the enemy of each others in this time Jews have to demonstrate their loyalty for their respective nation . Jews even have to killed each others, as they were fighting for their respective nations , even after killing each others Jews loyalty was questioned by their nation. Jews who were part of Zionist moment remains neutral .
The British government was noticing everything and in 1917 they announced Balford declaration under which they promised Jews for to provide homeland in Palestine if Jews will support them against ottoman empire & central power & British government simultaneously made deal with Arabs of Ottoman empire that if they will help then British government will provide them autonomous regions . And Arabs of Ottoman empire ( Palestine & Jordan ) also agreed to support British government , thus British government made ties with both Jews & Arabs. And as we all knows In WWI central power losses the war.
And when Germany loses in WWI immediately after their loose Anti Semitic, Anti Jews slogans came into force, As Nazi party came Into existence just after when the Germany loses in WWI in 1919. Adolf Hitler join Nazi party in 1921, Nazi party Anti Semitism & German pride with the treaty of Versailles. Nazi party blamed Jews for stabbing in back, they circulated this theory to gain political power & position in Germany. And that’s how Anti Jews thoughts grip power in Germany in 1920’s – 1930’s. After WWI Ottoman empire disintegrated & patrician was done after their defeat & new map was drawn of Middle east which was mainly b/w in control of French & British government. Palestine & Jordan came under The British rule. In WWI British government made promise to Arabs of Palestine & Jordan to gave them autonomous regions after defeat of Ottomans . As after defeat of Ottomans in WWI, All the territories under Ottoman rule became autonomous except Jordan & Palestine who were still under the control of British government . As British government had also promised Jews for their homeland In Jerusalem under The Balford declaration In 1917. From 1922 to 1947 British government allowed large Jews Immigration in Jerusalem , mainly from Eastern – Western part of Europe and middle east. Hitler became The Chancellor of Germany in 1933 & Killed many Jews people in Germanys concentration camps.
This is also known as Holocaust. When millions of Jews were killed in Nazi Germany’s Concentration camps during 1930’s. As a result of this many Jews people flee to Jerusalem , Palestine from Eastern & Western Europe as they were being persecuted there. Millions of Jews migrated to Palestine In span time of 10-15 years, And obviously Arabs of Palestine didn’t like the large immigration of Jews in Palestine as they then started protesting against British government and demanded for independency of Palestine from Britishers in 1937. Situation was so tensioned In the region that in next 10 years area became the hub of terror & violence. Area was totally infested with the hated of Jews & Arabs b/w 1920’s – 1930’ that it was costing thousands of life from both sides. This violent led to Israel & Palestine once such incidents to wailing wall rights of 1929 in b/w Arabs & Jews . Which is also known as western Wall, which Is located in Old city Jerusalem. It’s the most sacred site for Jews people, many people visits wall for prayers. After 1929’s riots Arabs sees Jews of eastern – western Europe & Jews of Mediterranean with same views that which was they are a group of those Homogonous people which seems national aspiration. The situation from Jews side was they strongly needed a state of their own & needed a political group for fulfillment of this purpose as they have seen. enough Persecution , Massacre, Migration , they have to flee from their homeland to other countries due to foreigners rule. Slavery , Slaughtering, They even have to each others during WWI & mass Persecution In Nazi Germanys concentration camps, their temples were destroyed various times throughout the whole history.
After Seeing mass confrontation b/w Jews & Arabs , British started controlling Jews immigration in Palestine in 1930’s Which Jews people didn’t like It at all and then they started fighting with both British & Arabs on Both sides.
( The western wall )
Then when WWII started, Hitler killed millions of Jews people In Nazi Concentration camps , This period is also known as “ The period of Holocaust “. Thousands of Jews people migrated to British Palestine during that time. British government tried various methods to resolve this conflict, but nothing happened, and in end British government handed over this case to United Nations. And UN after analyzing all best possible alternatives proposed that division of British Palestine in two parts .
1 Israel for Jews . 2. Palestine for Arabs.
And UN declared Jerusalem as an Special Zone International Territory by understanding the religious importance of the city. Jews People accepted the proposal And thus In 14 May 1948 Israel came in existence of world map.
As through this 2000 years of Jews history, we have seen major Persecution of Jews through out the history since from the very beginning of time . And this taught us a lesson that,
There is a major difference blw a Territory & Nation.
A territory is a boundary , while a country Is consist of
Without a nation we can’t have a territory or a state. Jews people has taught us that without a state a nation can exists because a nation belongs more to it’s people rather than to a state. Throughout the 2000 years of history Jews faced heavy persecution & flee to various parts of the world like in Mediterranean , Eastern – Western Europe, America . where ever they went they resemble their nation , their identity, culture was always intact with them. As we all know that their home land came in existence in 1948, but they somehow survived their existence through out history even in all time odd scenarios around them for almost every part of their history. Similarly India had faced the 1000 years of foreign invasion, but still culture was kept alive & shared from generation to generation
On the other hand big civilization with big boundaries throughout the all directions. They had
1. Mesopotamian Civilization ( 5000 BC – 530 BC )
2. Persian Civilization ( 4000 BC – 332 BC )
3. Greek Civilization ( 800 BC – 164 BC )
( Alexander the great , Plato, Socrates )
4. Roman Empire ( 35 BC - 1453 BC )
In South America
1. Inca Civilization
2. Maya Civilization
3. Aztec Civilization
All ended done & dusted.
Hence it’s more important to understand difference B/W nation & state. Nation is identity and identity is strong, which can be taken from thousands of years on other hand state is just territorial id. Thus strong cultural id guarantee of long survival of any civilization.
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