The roots of the sociological idea of crime can be linked back to the late nineteenth century when sociologists conducted extensive research into the economic causes of crime. They were the first to suggest that, for criminological research, the idea of crime should be expanded beyond its purely legal scope. The legal perspective on crime causation recommends a course of action in which law infractions are treated with criminal penalties.
In the struggle for Indian Independence, great leaders such as Lal Bahadur Shastri, Mahatma Gandhi, and others were obliged to break British rules. Self-immolation, hunger strikes, and other pressure tactics used by current politicians and trade unions are clear examples of deliberate legal infractions by responsible members of society. Besides the criminal's personality and the impact of biological, mental, and psychological variables on them, the influence of broader social and environmental contexts in which crimes are perpetrated must also be considered.
According to the sociological view of crime, there seem to be people who do not follow the law's predefined norms and traditions. These individuals do not adapt to society's usual standards and are mostly unconcerned with societal conventions.
Perhaps the first legalist to seek a sociological description of crime was Raffaele Garofalo. He identified as crimes all those activities that no civilized nation would refuse to acknowledge as unlawful and punishable. He stated that corruption is immoral and damaging conduct labeled as "criminal" by the public because it harms the moral sense represented by one or both basic altruistic emotions of innocence and sympathy. Subsequently, a renowned American jurist, Roscoe Pound, developed his idea of social interests,' which is linked to crime-repression. He based his thesis on the premise that legal phenomena are nothing more than social phenomena, and hence he considered jurisprudence a social engineering science. He emphasized that every individual's life interests, such as liberty, faith, social institutions, and general advancement, take precedence.
According to sociology, society has clearly defined these interests, and any act that threatens their realization necessitates repressive actions.
According to sociologists, each crime consists of three essential elements: values valued by the lawmakers who seem to be politically dominant, societal conflicts of interest resulting from environmental changes, and the offenders' use of force and coercive methods.
As per sociologists, criminal behavior, like any other social behavior, is influenced by particular environmental factors. As a result, differences in crime rates are due to differences in the societal structure under various systems. Sutherland shows that differences in mobility, cultural conflicts, familial background, and other factors directly impact crime causation.
However, the preceding list is not exhaustive but rather illustrative, and these are some of the most critical factors that directly impact the crime rate. Through his actuarial approach to the problem of crime causation, Dr. Walter Reckless discovered that the opportunities for a criminal being detected or reported are primarily determined by his position in society, which is ascertained by his age, sex, race, occupational and social standing, and residence, among other factors.
The sociological theory of criminal behavior assumes that criminals result from social forces. Prof. Sutherland thoroughly investigated offenders and suggested two critical approaches for criminal behavior: the processes at work at the time of the crime, dubbed the "static explanation of crime," and the mechanisms at work in the criminal's earlier life, dubbed the "chronological or generic interpretation of crime."
Psychologists, biologists, and psychiatrists favored the dynamic view of crime causation, and it became the foundation for the subjective approach to crime. It implies that the immediate giving of something unique that the criminal finds conducive to the unlawful act is the cause of criminal behavior. Embezzlement or misuse of public funds, for example, may only be done by people who deal with enormous sums of money.
Sutherland came to the following observations about the historical or general explanation of criminal behavior:
(1). Criminal conduct is acquired rather than inherited.
(2) The criminal's acquisition of criminal behavior is based on his interactions with other people and his relationship.
(3) An individual's most powerful influence is his intimate personal group, which shapes his behavior in various ways.
(4) The best explanation for criminality in humankind is Sutherland's theory of differential association.
(5) The duration, priority, and severity of the connection between criminal and anti-criminal behavior can vary.
(6) A few criminologists have tried to explain criminal conduct regarding financial requirements, men's acquisitive impulses, and the desire to attain social prestige and enjoy life.
The impact of industrialization, urbanization, modernity, and democratization on social interaction has increased the demand for community control. Crime and violence resurface when society is disorganized, floundering, and plagued by social and economic issues. Because crime is a social fact and a human act, it is necessary to prevent its recurrence or repeat it by adopting a mindset that encourages the offender to socialize and reform.
Many anti-social behaviors formerly thought to be unethical and offensive have now practically become commonplace. Criminals and non-criminals engage in comparable actions; the only difference is that the former are caught in the legal net due to their lack of skill and vigilance, whereas the latter get away with it because they are cunning enough to exploit their non-detection and escape.
Corruption is typically motivated by a desire for money. Bertrand de Seville, an international anti-corruption expert, and consultant to the State Government of Andhra Pradesh, once stated that an individual's corruption is caused by either need or greed and that it is, therefore, incorrect to believe that rich people are less corrupt and poor people more corrupt. As a result, he was unsurprised to discover that corruption existed in the judiciary and the police department of Andhra Pradesh.
India is being confronted with a slew of socio-economic and political issues. There has been an unusual rise in crime and violent incidents, such as rapes, dacoities, and financial scams. One single philosophy guides political leaders and so-called people's representatives. It doesn't matter what menu you're on; obtain what you want and utilize all available means.
India is on the verge of degeneration if the current tide of materialism, opportunism, and vandalism is not controlled quickly. The unique qualities of honesty, sincerity, and integrity, which have lost their credibility in the current Indian setting, must be restored.
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