Education is solely not based on the choices of subjects we prefer. The institute and streams matter too. For a significant section of society in our country, education is their only chance of re-creating their life. It is a way out of the vicious circle of poverty and illiteracy. Hence, it is a significant decision with many factors such as financial status, city or town they belong to, societal conditions and many other factors. There are several aspects of the education system and demographic effect that the steps for its attainment should have checked soon, not that it isn't late enough.
The door towards 100% literacy in India is far. Few states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa have a large concentration of people with high fertility levels and low levels of fertility literacy. Access to quality primary and secondary schools is a problem. It is not surprising that these states have a shortage of higher education centres, given the masses' lack of awareness. Although Uttar Pradesh has more than 7000 colleges running, which is the highest number in the country, the dreams of quality of higher education are still a dream.
The lack of proper educational facilities, amenities and atmosphere leads to an outflow of human capital to other states/regions. But, it should also be noted, there are considerable intra-state movements in all the states. Only 17 per cent of migration on education is inter-state in nature, while 45 per cent of migration is across districts of the same condition. It is evident since, within each state, there are cities with institutes of higher learning.
From the perspective of migration for education, the most important states are Delhi, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, West Bengal and Rajasthan. Of these states, Delhi, Maharashtra, Karnataka are the main destinations (i.e., drawing migrants). In contrast, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Rajasthan are the primary source states of migrants.
10 to 29 years of age group constitute 81.6% of those who have migrated for education. Those in the age group 10 to 19 years make up many total migrants from urban and rural regions. A reason for migration, they account for 57.5% since this is the beginning age for education. 24.1% of the 20 to 29 years age group stop education by the age of 30. There is a lesser probability of people working in their education. The ratio of those above 30 who migrated for education is negligible compared to the 10-29 age group. Of the people above the age of 40 who emigrated for education, the proportion of female migrants is less than half of the male migrants. It is heartening to note that the number of females leaving their houses seeking better education has increased with time.
The percentage of women moving for education is increasing:
In the age group of 10-29 years, females estimate 41.3% of the total migrants who moved for schooling. The gap between the females move from rural to urban areas has reduced with time. There are many other social factors such as employment, marriage, business, etc., for which females are coming out of their houses.
Migration for education in Bihar:
Talking about both north and south Bihar, migration is a way of life, but more so in the towns in Northern Bihar. This is not just for livelihood possibilities and health-related opportunities but also for better education. There is a way of earning in the smaller cities as agriculture wage labourers and even some low-paid jobs for the less educated. There are hardly any opportunities for the educated people, as new industries create opportunities for big cities.
In Bihar, the two main cities for education migration are Patna and Bhagalpur. Both cities are filled with students preparing for their 12th board papers and competitive exams. The area is filled with the top and famous coaching and acquaintances for the students to live. But with the number of students increasing to the specific regions, the new coaching centres have also opened. With more than 100 coaching centres, students have a variety of options to choose from, but the credibility of the coaching centres needs to be questioned.
Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh are notable origin states of movement driven by education. In contrast, Maharashtra, Delhi, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh (intra-state), Bihar (intra-state) are prime destinations. Due to this, some states like UP, Bihar, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh are facing a brain drain. Based on aspects of human capital, i.e., skill level and education. At the same time, the states of Delhi, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh are gaining at their expense. When considered from Indian panoramas, these drifts would not be a problem. Still, from some of the states, these movements can affect their growth trajectories and implied development. This aspect should be highlighted in the discussions on inclusive growth and development. Any system needs to work smoothly. It is essential to manage all the elements and effects of its impacted areas. The issue needs to be a significant electoral issue for the states as the future of the people of these states is paying the price for it.
As Gurudev Rabindranath said, "The highest education is that which doesn't merely give us information but also makes our life in harmony with all the existences." We can never stress the importance of proper education for India. The need for the system to reach out to the minor sections of the society, to the states with low literacy rates with good ideas and implementation is the need of the hour.
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