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Reasons behind Migration from Bihar

What is migration?

Migration is when people move from their native land to different places in search of better opportunities in work or living conditions for some time.

Migration from Bihar:

Migration from Bihar, both from the state and within the state, is common; it started in the 19th century and has been increased in recent decades, mainly towards the western parts of India. Usually in Bihar migration happens cyclically/seasonally in other terms, seasonal or circular migration- where migrants usually move to other places for some months (for a short term) but after that, they stay at their usual place of residence and then back to other places of employment and the cycle goes on.

Because of Bihar’s higher than average unemployment level, it is one of the topmost states for the origin of migrants. Bihar’s one-third population is below the poverty line; one of the many reasons due to which migration have been normalized for some decades and has become crucial. Approximately 12% of Bihar is urbanized and 50% of the labour force of Bihar are engaged in agriculture. Recently, it has been seen that migrants from Bihar now take up more work in industrial or construction fields and less in the agricultural field. 

Bihar contributes 58% of youth in India. And migration is mostly dominated by men mainly for employment reasons, while female migration happens chiefly due to marriages.

REASON for Migration:

The reasons for migration can be classified into broad categories such as business, employment, education, and moving with family. The reasons also reflect the overall developmental outcomes and progressive rates of the region.

1.     Family type: The type of family plays a major role in migration. The joint families have more migrants compared to the nuclear families. As a member of the joint family, he migrates for the prevalence of the nuclear family. For joint families, it is easier to let go of the member of the family. The reason for migration in a joint household is to earn for the member of the household.

2.     Occupation: If the head of the household is engaged in some pretty profit earning business or earning wholesomely so there is no reason for the household or its member to migrate. But if the head of the household is not earning or not gaining any profit (in the agriculture sector also) then there may be a reason to migrate.

3.     Agriculture: It has been unfeasible and unremunerative due to the low yields and landlessness. Bihar can’t be made a sea of employment just by agriculture because agriculture has low growth and a decline in income and employment.

Another factor in this reason can be the mechanisation of farming -leading to unemployment- which forced the people to take industrial jobs within the state. As reaping is done with the harvesting machine so now you can only sow.

4.     Unemployment has always been at higher rates and the major reason for migration; about two-thirds of people migrate in search of employment. Here people not only migrate in search of employment, but also for better occupation.

5.     Education: It's the reason for migration in many states, but in Bihar education tends to be important with no proper sources of it. Mainly in rural areas girls only complete their basic, intermediate level of education.

6.     Marriage: It has been one of the most important reasons for migrations and mainly for females.

7.     Exploitation: The exploitation of Biharis from their politicians leads to migration and also people from rural areas of lower caste move within the state to not be exploited by the higher castes in their village. Because in Bihar the social hierarchy of caste still matters and it can’t be reasoned against. Due to such mistreatments and deceits, Bihar has become a more patriarchal, rigid and orthodox state.

Bihar was weighed down by politicians who carried out oppressing and exploiting the innocent, no one dared to protest and just like that it was like the society never gained independence. 

8.     Orthodoxy: Some people also migrate due to conservatism in this place. The hold Biharis have on the orthodoxy. Like they can’t let go the casteism, the double standards regarding gender.

9.     Corruption: The majority of the matter of concern is neglected no orders are executed regarding it without paying bribes. Bihar is a place where politicians have allegedly amassed wealth and the society’s treasury is depleted. Corruption and breach of trust with it has eroded the state. Funds for big projects are diverted by the statespersons for their banks and Bihar suffers from poor maintenance. Also, the programs for bringing the migrant back home were fabricated by keeping the October-November elections in mind

In the last decade, Bihar had faced rapid growth in its economy and an increase in urbanisation but it is still second to last in urbanisation before Himachal Pradesh. Large scale infrastructure projects offered employment to so many skilled and unskilled labourers in Bihar and they only migrated within the state. It doesn’t mean that migration has decreased it merely shifted from the agricultural sector to the industrial sector and within the state. The 1.5 million people who migrated to other states are finding jobs in Bihar. Due to migration to other states, Biharis don’t have access to their social entitlements- like voting- which shouldn’t be the case, Indians should be able to vote from any state they want to.

Bihar can be great, but for that Biharis have to understand and work on the problem. If not, then people will comprehend that if nothing happened in the past decade, then nothing can happen within the next year or even a decade, and continue to live the same. The change will only happen when the youth of Bihar will abandon or challenge orthodoxy. 

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