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The Indoor Environment And The Risk Of Diseases

In most of the world, 90% of people spend their time indoors. As a result of being confined in these places, people are exposed to a wide variety of toxins. These chemicals have multiple sources, including indoor airborne pollutants from the outer side, gaseous emissions from furniture and construction materials, and waste from activities like cleaning and cooking. We are a potent and mobile source of pollution because we breathe and exhale pollutants into the air around us.

But what precisely cleanses the environment of pollutants? When it rains, this happens in the outer atmosphere chemically via oxidation. This process is usually present in little concentration around us. Radicals called hydroxyl (OH) ions do this chemical cleaning mostly. Most of these highly reactive substances, commonly referred to as the detergents of the atmosphere, are created when sunlight's UV rays interact with ozone and water vapor. It is known as photochemical fog.

On the other hand, intense sunlight and rain have much less effect on the air inside a building. Moreover, since glass blocks most ultraviolet rays, people typically believe that indoor OH radical concentrations are much lower than the amount that ozone externally cleans the air. This is not true, in any case.

An interaction between ozone and the skin's oils creates OH radicals. However, the presence of many people in the same space as ozone may release significant amounts of OH radicals, according to studies by the Max Planck Institute. One of the researchers declares that the amount of ozone present, how it enters the area, and the configuration of the interior ventilation all affect the strength and structure of the oxidation field. The quantities the researchers found matched the concentrations of OH found outside throughout the day perfectly.

An oxidation field is created when ozone interacts with the oils and lipids on our skin. Around 10% of the lipids known as squalene in our skin protect and moisturize it. Enormous chemical compounds formed later react with the ozone in the air to produce large amounts of OH radicals. 

The modeling team looked at how the human-made OH field changed in response to additional ventilation and ozone factors that weren't looked at in the lab. The results demonstrated the presence of the OH radicals, their company, and difference in considerable quantities. 

According to Manabu Shiraiwa, "Our modeling team is the first and currently the only group that can integrate chemical processes between the skin and indoor air, from molecular scales to room scales," according to the measurement results. The project's director, Jonathan Williams, claims that the oxidation field we create would change a significant number of the chemicals in our area. That's why we need to reconsider indoor chemistry in inhabited areas. OH may oxidize a far greater variety of substances than ozone. Many chemicals are produced in our breathing zone and may affect our health. According to new research, this oxidation field will also alter the chemical signals we send and receive. It is why people exposed to high levels of ozone have a higher risk of getting some forms of cancer.

The new finding could impact how we feel physically. For example, the ability to sell a broad range of materials and furnishings is determined by examining the chemical emissions of each item independently. Williams, an atmospheric scientist, advises more research to be conducted with ozone and people present. He thinks this is the best-case scenario. This is because oxidation processes might produce breathing irritants like 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA) and other oxygenated species produced by OH radicals. Because reactions can produce respiratory irritants in addition to removing pollutants, it is essential to consider building materials, furnishings, and scented products both on their own and other indoor chemicals.

Edited by: Ayona Mitra 

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Tags: #environment #diseases hydroxylradicals #indoorenvironment #ozone


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