There have been many conflicts in the world. According to Huntington, these disputes occur due to six factors. First, different cultures, ethnicities, or religions cause these disputes. The difference is a primary factor to create conflicts. The second point is globalizationbecause it increases the interaction between different people or civilizations. For instance, there is a correlation between the increase in the immigrant population in a country and the increase in cultural awareness in that country's citizens.
The third is the desecularization of the world because according to the author, fundamentalist countries and organizations cause horrific events. Fourth is indigenization as a result of the high status of the West. In the past, the elites of non-western societies were usually people who were most involved with the West, had been educated at Oxford, the Sorbonne, or Sandhurst, and had absorbed Western attitudes and values. Nowadays, many non-western countries’ elites have indigenized.
The fourth is cultural values are not changeable. For instance, In SSCB communists can be liberal or poor easily but Russians could not be Ukrainian. Hence, cultural values are a significant part of people’s identity.
Nevertheless, Alam is against these views. He asserts that differences do not cause conflicts. If they cause conflicts, people will not interact with each other harmonically. Every person is different, so differences are not dangerous for civilizations. Moreover, he is against that desecularization creates disputes in the world. Contrary to popular belief, the west is as religious as the east. The English queen is also the head of the church. Also, in the past, The situation of non-Muslims in the non-secular Ottoman and Indian states was very good. These countries were even more tolerant than in some countries today. Also, he is against the thatthatestablishes globalization and economic growth as factors of disputes. Economic growth in Asia and population growth in Islam have revitalized cultural identities in Asia and Islam.
East Asia is currently the fastest globalizing and modernizing place in the world. Then the conflicts would be intense between East Asia and Western Europe but it did not happen.
Huntington says that differences bring about problems and disputes. If they cause conflict, people cannot live together because every person is different. Also, he sees the desecularization of Muslims as a threatBut according to Alam, Islam has a great tolerance for different religious communities. For example, the Christian Balkan people who lived more than 500 years under Ottoman rule lived in harmony with the Ottoman Empire and preserved their own culture. Moreover, globalization cannot engender disagreements. On the contrary, thanks to them, the cultures become closer to each other.
Finally, homo sapiens are constantly in conflict with each other. This is a normal situation, so conflict is inherent in human nature, but at the same time, people live in harmony. In these two cases, they nourish each other, and both will happen as long as people exist.
Huntington asserts that the world is changing. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the poles of the world changed. There is no longer an eastern block, western bloc, and third-world countries. The conflicts that will take place in the 21st century will be civilization-oriented. In this case, there will be a Confucianism -Islam alliance against western civilization. Because these two civilizations are not very modern compared to westerners, they are closer to each other.
Western countries have long taken advantage of China and Islamic civilization. They paid taxes to the westerners and obeyed their colonial governors, but these two civilizations cannot unite against western countries because the interests of the two civilizations conflicted with each other. China is in constant trouble with the Muslim-Uyghur autonomous region and the Muslim Central Asian states. Sometimes conflicts occur between them. For instance, Chinese President Xi Jinping encouraged China's iron-handed approach toward the Uighur ethnic minority in Xinjiang province. He allegedly ordered officials to show 'absolutely no mercy' when dealing with terrorism and separatism in Xinjiang. In addition, Muslim states do not lean towards an alliance with non-Muslim countries. Also, Chinese civilization is introverted. It has rarely made alliances throughout history. Therefore, The chances of Chinese and Islamic civilization uniting against the west are quietly very low.
All in all, Huntington’s article argues that disputes are related to differences in civilizations and he creates the theory of kin-country syndrome and the theory of a new alliance of Confucianism and Islam civilization. Nevertheless, according to Alam’s article, these opinions are not rational. Hence, conflicts are a part of human nature and states do not have kin. They only have interests.
1 Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations, Foreign Affairs; Summer 1993; 72, 3; ABI/INFORM Global,35.
2 M. Shahid Alam, A Clash of Civilizations? Nonsense, Journal of The Historical Society · Volume 2, Issue 3‐4 383
3 Axel Dorloff , China: Fighting terrorism in Xinjiang or repression of Uighurs? 30.09.2020 https://www.dw.com/en/china-fighting-terrorism-in-xinjiang-or-repression-of-uighurs/av-55105734.